Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials

Outcome Selection and Methodological Quality of Major and Minor Shoulder Surgery Studies: A Scoping Review

General Information


El-Boghdadly, Kariem; Abdallah, Faraj W.; Short, Anthony; Vorobeichik, Leon; Memtsoudis, Stavros G.; Chan, Vincent W.S.


Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Further Study Information

Funding source(s):

Health Area

Disease Category
Orthopaedics & trauma

Disease Name

Target Population

Age Range


Nature / type of Intervention


Literature review

We conducted a scoping review (a review that identifies the nature and extent of research evidence) to explore the reported outcome domains, outcome tools, and methodological quality from RCTs conducted in shoulder surgery. We considered both major shoulder surgery (defined as arthroplasty, rotator cuff repair, stabilization procedures, biceps tenodesis, or Bankart repairs) and minor shoulder surgery (simple arthroscopy, capsular plication, lateral clavicular excisions, or subacromial decompression). We queried 10 electronic databases for studies published between January 2006 and January 2015. Studies were included if they were prospective, randomized controlled, clinical trials enrolling patients who received an elective shoulder surgical intervention. We extracted data relating to trial characteristics, primary outcomes, tools used to measure these outcomes as well as methodological quality indicators. We assessed indicators of methodological quality by exploring (1) the reproducibility of power analyses; and (2) whether the primary outcomes were powered to minimum clinically important differences. Risk of bias was also assessed with the Jadad score with scores between 0 (very high risk of bias) and 5 (very low risk). Findings were qualitatively analyzed and reported according to systematic and scoping review guidelines. We included 315 studies involving 30,232 patients; 266 studies investigated anesthetic, analgesic, or surgical interventions.

Stakeholders Involved

Study investigators

Study Type

Systematic review of outcome measures/measurement instruments
Systematic review of outcomes measured in trials

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