A Systematic Review of Core Outcomes for Hypospadias Surgery

Although the outcome of hypospadias surgery requires careful scrutiny, there is little consensus on what clinical outcome parameters should be considered essential as part of routine clinical practice. To understand the extent of variation in reported outcome measures, Pubmed was searched to identify outcomes in boys with hypospadias published in the English language from 2008 to 2017. Eligibility criteria were met in 268 publications. Outcomes were inconsistently reported and only 9 (13%) were reported in more than 25% of papers. Outcome studies describing younger boys were overrepresented. Urethrocutaneous fistula was reported in about 90% of publications that included boys aged <16 years. Among younger boys meatal stenosis, dehiscence, and urethral strictures were next most frequent. In the older age groups, an increasing frequency of cosmesis, meatal shape/location, and genital skin changes was described. Outcomes reflecting sexual health, erection, and relationship status including paternity were reported in those aged >16 years. The current study identifies the range of parameters that are measured to assess outcome after hypospadias surgery. The results can be used to promote the development of an age-specific core outcome set that can be applied as a standardized assessment tool in future routine clinical settings.


Leunbach, T. L. O'Toole, S. Springer, A. Williamson, P. R. Ahmed, S. F.


Journal: Sex Dev
Pages: -
Year: 2019
DOI: 10.1159/000504973

Further Study Information

Current Stage: Not Applicable
Funding source(s): None

Health Area

Disease Category: Other

Disease Name: Hypospadias

Target Population

Age Range: Unknown

Sex: Male

Nature of Intervention: Surgery

Stakeholders Involved

- None

Study Type

- Systematic review of outcomes measured in trials


- Systematic review

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